As such, the application of viruses such as Newcastle disease virus было показано, что вирус болезни Ньюкасла при инфицировании. герпеса, вирус болезни Ньюкасла , аденовирусы  , парвовирусы Oncolytic Adenoviruses: a thorny path to glioma cure. One of the most important of these is the viral disease known as Newcastle disease, which causes devastating losses in both commercial and village chickens.
Virulent Newcastle disease
Cotton swabs can be used. Views Read Edit View history. There are two basic processes used to produce a thermostable Как вылечить заболевание ньюкасла disease vaccine. Eight of these Как вылечить заболевание ньюкасла are listed in Table 1.
Virulent Newcastle disease VND , formerly exotic Newcastle disease ,  is a contagious viral avian disease affecting many domestic and wild bird species; it is transmissible to humans. Its effects are most notable in domestic poultry due to their high susceptibility and the potential for severe impacts of an epizootic on the poultry industries. It is endemic to many countries. Exposure of humans to infected birds for example in poultry processing plants can cause mild conjunctivitis and influenza -like symptoms, but the Newcastle disease virus NDV otherwise poses no hazard to human health.
No treatment for NDV is known, but the use of prophylactic vaccines  and sanitary measures reduces the likelihood of outbreaks. Newcastle disease was first identified in Java, Indonesia, in , and in , in Newcastle-upon-Tyne , England whence it got its name. However, it may have been prevalent as early as , when a disease wiped out all the domestic fowl in northwest Scotland.
The policy of slaughter ceased in England and Wales on 31 March , except for the peracute form of Newcastle disease and for fowl plague. In Scotland the slaughter policy continued for all types of fowl pest. Interest in the use of NDV as an anticancer agent has arisen from the ability of NDV to selectively kill human tumour cells with limited toxicity to normal cells. Transmission occurs by exposure to faecal and other excretions from infected birds, and through contact with contaminated food, water, equipment, and clothing.
NDV strains can be categorised as velogenic highly virulent , mesogenic intermediate virulence , or lentogenic nonvirulent. Lentogenic strains produce mild signs with negligible mortality. In , promising results were reported using an attenuated strain of the Newcastle virus, code named MTH, in cancer patients  by researchers who had isolated the strain in The researchers suggested in cells that resist the normal inducement of apoptosis when infected will give NDV more time to incubate in cell and spread.
Many cancer cells will overexpress antiapoptotic factors as part of tumor development. This mechanism of delaying apoptosis in abnormal cells gives NDV the specificity it needs to be an efficient cancer-fighting oncolytic virus. Though the oncolytic effect of NDV was documented already in the s, the main advances of viruses in cancer therapy came with the advent of reverse genetics technologies   With these new possibilities, studies of modified NDV strains with enhanced cancer-treatment properties have been put on the agenda.
Promising results were discovered with proteins associated to the adaptive immune system, which paved the way for possibilities to use NDV to create a tumor-associated antigen.
NDV possesses many unique anticancer properties and thereby provides an excellent base in virotherapy research. NDV has selectivity on oncogenic cells, where it replicates without, or in a less pronounced way, harming normal cells. The precise way in which the presence of NDV induces tumor cell death remains to be clarified and may show variation regarding the strains of NDV used and which type of cancer is targeted.
The results  also indicate the extrinsic pathway is activated by TNF-related, apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced, NDV-mediated apoptosis in a late stage. NDV has aggregating properties causing syncytia formations of tumor cells, which, apart from amplifying immune-based cell killing, also results in necrosis of cells. NDV is spread primarily through direct contact between healthy birds and the bodily discharges of infected birds. The disease is transmitted through infected birds' droppings and secretions from the nose, mouth, and eyes.
NDV spreads rapidly among birds kept in confinement, such as commercially raised chickens. High concentrations of the NDV are found in birds' bodily discharges; therefore, the disease can be spread easily by mechanical means. Virus-bearing material can be picked up on shoes and clothing and carried from an infected flock to a healthy one. NDV can survive for several weeks in a warm and humid environment on birds' feathers, manure, and other materials. It can survive indefinitely in frozen material.